Broken Symmetries – Abstract

Most shapes in Nature display little or no symmetry, but many are almost symmetric. After the neutron had been discovered, it became clear that there are specific forces acting within the atomic nucleus.

During the next two decades, many new experiments were performed and new particles and new decays were discovered. Chen-Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee (1956) support the parity law by showed that the weak interaction is not invariant under a mirror transformation in space. Abdus Salam (1979) and Lev Landau (1962) argued that the interaction can be invariant under chiral transformations of the neutrino. Gell-Mann and Abraham Pais (1955), pointed out that kaons must have unusual properties.

Spontaneous symmetry breaking plays an important role in many fields of science. Yoichiro Nambu had discovered spontaneous symmetry breaking in a field-theoretic formulation in a superconductor and it could also exist in a quantum field theory for elementary particles. The observed CP violation (a violation of CP symmetry: the combination of C symmetry and P symmetry) is assumed to be due to the spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism.

Nature follows the Kobayashi-Maskawa Model to describe the weak interactions in particle physics. In this paper, the Nobel Prize 2008 awarded by Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa from Sakata’s Nagoya School as their work on the CP violation in terms of the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg Model (1971) as the discovery of the broken symmetry origin that predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature is primarily discussed.

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Post Author: Altifani R. Hayyu

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